Coot is a molecular-graphics application for model building and validation of biological macromolecules. The program displays electron-density maps and atomic models and allows model manipulations such as idealization, real-space refinement, manual rotation/translation, rigid-body fitting, ligand search, solvation, mutations, rotamers and Ramachandran idealization. Coot Virus relies on drive-by downloads to enter without the knowledge of the PC user. There are two ways for this ransomware to enter. First, the person may authorize the installation without knowing that he is about to load a virus. Total Downloads 24,632. Downloads Last Week 18. Report Software. Related Software. Discover how to type and improve your typing skills and performance.
Coot is one of many malicious programs that belong to the Djvu ransomware family. Ransomware is a form of software that blocks access to data by encryption. Victims who have files encrypted by ransomware cannot regain access unless they decode them with a decryption tool and/or key. To obtain these tools/keys, victims are encouraged to pay a ransom to cyber criminals. Instructions about how to decrypt files encrypted by Coot can be found in a text file named '_readme.txt'. Coot places this file in folders that contain locked files. Furthermore, this ransomware renames each encrypted file by adding the '.coot' extension to the filename. For example, '1.jpg' becomes '1.jpg.coot'.
The ransom message states that Coot encrypts files with the strongest encryption algorithm and the only way to decrypt them is to purchase a decryption tool and unique key. This can be done by contacting Coot's developers via the [email protected] or [email protected] email address and providing a personal ID. It is mentioned that the cost of decryption depends on how quickly victims contact the cyber criminals who designed this ransomware. The normal cost of the decryption tool and key is $980, however, if contacted within 72 hours of encryption, this cost is reduced to $490 (a 50% discount). Victims are permitted to send Coot's developers one encrypted file, which they will decrypt free of charge. They offer free decryption as 'proof' that they can provide tools that can decrypt the remaining files. Despite this, ransomware developers should never be trusted: they often do not keep their promises and send no decryption tools/keys, even when victims meet all demands/pay ransoms. Unfortunately, there are no other tools that capable of restoring files encrypted by Coot (only the developers have the keys/tools). Typically, the only way to recover files without having to pay a ransom is to restore them from a backup. Even if ransomware is removed from the system, all files remain encrypted (removing ransomware simply prevents any further encryption).
Screenshot of a message encouraging users to pay a ransom to decrypt their compromised data:
Coot is just one of many ransomware-type programs. Further examples include One, .FC, and Elder. Most prevent victims from accessing their files so that they are tempted to pay cyber criminals ransoms (typically, via a cryptocurrency) for decryption software and/or keys. Common variables are cost of decryption and encryption algorithm (symmetric or asymmetric) used to encrypt data. In most cases, it is impossible to decrypt files without using tools held only by developers of specific ransomware, unless the ransomware it is not finished, contains bugs, flaws, etc. To avoid damage (data loss) caused by ransomware in future, have your data backed up and store it on unplugged storage devices or remote servers.
|Threat Type||Ransomware, Crypto Virus, Files locker.|
|Detection Names||AVG (FileRepMalware), BitDefender (Trojan.GenericKD.41955490), ESET-NOD32 (A Variant Of Win32/Injector.EION), Kaspersky (Trojan.Win32.Chapak.ebjm), Full List (VirusTotal)|
|Encrypted Files Extension||.coot|
|Ransom Demanding Message||_readme.txt|
|Cyber Criminal Contact||[email protected], [email protected]|
|Symptoms||Cannot open files stored on your computer, previously functional files now have a different extension (for example, my.docx.locked). A ransom demand message is displayed on your desktop. Cyber criminals demand payment of a ransom (usually in bitcoins) to unlock your files.|
|Additional Information||This malware is designed to show a fake Windows Update window and modify the Windows 'hosts' file to prevent users from accessing cyber security websites (more information below).|
|Distribution methods||Infected email attachments (macros), torrent websites, malicious ads, unofficial activation and updating tools.|
|Damage||All files are encrypted and cannot be opened without paying a ransom. Additional password-stealing trojans and malware infections can be installed together with a ransomware infection.|
|Malware Removal (Windows)|
To eliminate possible malware infections, scan your computer with legitimate antivirus software. Our security researchers recommend using Malwarebytes.
Emails with attached files sent from from unknown, suspicious addresses should not be trusted. Malicious emails are usually disguised as important and official, however, they are generally irrelevant to recipients. Do not download or install software using third party downloaders, installers, unofficial web pages or tools, Peer-to-Peer networks, or other tools mentioned above. Download from official, trustworthy websites and using direct download links. Update installed programs regularly, however, this should be achieved using tools or functions that are designed by official developers. Third party updaters cannot be trusted. Software 'cracking' tools are illegal and often cause installation of malware. If software is not free, it should be activated by formal purchase. Scan systems with reputable antivirus or anti-spyware software regularly. Keep this software up-to-date and remove detected threats immediately. If your computer is already infected with Coot, we recommend running a scan with Malwarebytes for Windows to automatically eliminate this ransomware.
Text presented in Coot ransomware text file ('_readme.txt'):
Don't worry, you can return all your files!
All your files like photos, databases, documents and other important are encrypted with
strongest encryption and unique key.
The only method of recovering files is to purchase decrypt tool and unique key for you.
This software will decrypt all your encrypted files.
What guarantees you have?
You can send one of your encrypted file from your PC and we decrypt it for free.
But we can decrypt only 1 file for free. File must not contain valuable information.
You can get and look video overview decrypt tool:
Price of private key and decrypt software is $980.
Discount 50% available if you contact us first 72 hours, that's price for you is $490.
Please note that you'll never restore your data without payment.
Check your e-mail 'Spam' or 'Junk' folder if you don't get answer more than 6 hours.
To get this software you need write on our e-mail:
Reserve e-mail address to contact us:
Your personal ID:
Screenshot of files encrypted by Coot ('.coot' extension):
Screenshot of fake Windows update pop-up displayed during the encryption:
IMPORTANT NOTE! - As well as encrypting data, ransomware-type infections from the Djvu malware family also add a number of entries to the Windows 'hosts' file. The entries contain URLs of various websites, most of which are related to malware removal. This is done to prevent users from accessing malware security websites and seeking help. Our website (PCrisk.com) is also on the list. Removing these entries, however, is simple - you can find detailed instructions in this article (note that, although the steps are shown in the Windows 10 environment, the process is virtually identical on all versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system).
Screenshot of websites added to the Windows hosts file:
There are currently two versions of Djvu ransomware infections: old and new. The old versions were designed to encrypt data by using a hard-coded 'offline key' whenever the infected machine had no internet connection or the server was timing out/not responding. Therefore, some victims were able to decrypt data using a tool developed by cyber security researcher, Michael Gillespie, however, since the encryption mechanism has been slightly changed (hence the new version, released in August, 2019), the decrypter no longer works and it is now not supported. If your data has been encrypted by an older version, you might be able to restore it with the another tool developed by Emsisoft and Michael Gillespie. It supports a total of 148 Djvu variants and you can find more information, as well as download link and decryption instructions, on the Emsisoft official web page.
Screenshot of Djvu decryption tool by Emsisoft and Michael Gillespie:
Additionally, Emsisoft is now providing a service that allows data decryption (again, only if it was encrypted by Djvu variants released before August, 2019) for those victims who have copies of the file before and after encryption. Victims simply upload the original and encrypted file to Emsisoft's Djvu decryption web page and download the aforementioned decryption tool (the download link will be provided after uploading files). Note that file processing may take some time, so be patient. Note that the system must have a reliable internet connection during the entire decryption process, otherwise it will fail.
Screenshot of Emsisoft's Djvu decryption service web page:
Instant automatic malware removal:Manual threat removal might be a lengthy and complicated process that requires advanced computer skills. Malwarebytes is a professional automatic malware removal tool that is recommended to get rid of malware. Download it by clicking the button below:
Some ransomware-type infections are designed to encrypt files within external storage devices, infect them, and even spread throughout the entire local network. For this reason, it is very important to isolate the infected device (computer) as soon as possible.
Step 1: Disconnect from the internet.
The easiest way to disconnect a computer from the internet is to unplug the Ethernet cable from the motherboard, however, some devices are connected via a wireless network and for some users (especially those who are not particularly tech-savvy), disconnecting cables may seem troublesome. Therefore, you can also disconnect the system manually via Control Panel:
Navigate to the 'Control Panel', click the search bar in the upper-right corner of the screen, enter 'Network and Sharing Center' and select search result:
Click the 'Change adapter settings' option in the upper-left corner of the window:
Right-click on each connection point and select 'Disable'. Once disabled, the system will no longer be connected to the internet. To re-enable the connection points, simply right-click again and select 'Enable'.
Step 2: Unplug all storage devices.
As mentioned above, ransomware might encrypt data and infiltrate all storage devices that are connected to the computer. For this reason, all external storage devices (flash drives, portable hard drives, etc.) should be disconnected immediately, however, we strongly advise you to eject each device before disconnecting to prevent data corruption:
Navigate to 'My Computer', right-click on each connected device and select 'Eject':
Step 3: Log-out of cloud storage accounts.
Some ransomware-type might be able to hijack software that handles data stored within 'the Cloud'. Therefore, the data could be corrupted/encrypted. For this reason, you should log-out of all cloud storage accounts within browsers and other related software. You should also consider temporarily uninstalling the cloud-management software until the infection is completely removed.
To properly handle an infection, one must first identify it. Some ransomware infections use ransom-demand messages as an introduction (see the WALDO ransomware text file below).
This, however, is rare. In most cases, ransomware infections deliver more direct messages simply stating that data is encrypted and that victims must pay some sort of ransom. Note that ransomware-type infections typically generate messages with different file names (for example, '_readme.txt', 'READ-ME.txt', 'DECRYPTION_INSTRUCTIONS.txt', 'DECRYPT_FILES.html', etc.). Therefore, using the name of a ransom message may seem like a good way to identify the infection. The problem is that most of these names are generic and some infections use the same names, even though the delivered messages are different and the infections themselves are unrelated. Therefore, using the message filename alone can be ineffective and even lead to permanent data loss (for example, by attempting to decrypt data using tools designed for different ransomware infections, users are likely to end up permanently damaging files and decryption will no longer be possible even with the correct tool).
Another way to identify a ransomware infection is to check the file extension, which is appended to each encrypted file. Ransomware infections are often named by the extensions they append (see files encrypted by Qewe ransomware below).
This method is only effective, however, when the appended extension is unique - many ransomware infections append a generic extension (for example, '.encrypted', '.enc', '.crypted', '.locked', etc.). In these cases, identifying ransomware by its appended extension becomes impossible.
One of the easiest and quickest ways to identify a ransomware infection is to use the ID Ransomware website. This service supports most existing ransomware infections. Victims simply upload a ransom message and/or one encrypted file (we advise you to upload both if possible).
The ransomware will be identified within seconds and you will be provided with various details, such as the name of the malware family to which the infection belongs, whether it is decryptable, and so on.
Example 1 (Qewe [Stop/Djvu] ransomware):
Example 2 (.iso [Phobos] ransomware):
If your data happens to be encrypted by a ransomware that is not supported by ID Ransomware, you can always try searching the internet by using certain keywords (for example, ransom message title, file extension, provided contact emails, cryptowallet addresses, etc.).
Encryption algorithms used by most ransomware-type infections are extremely sophisticated and, if the encryption is performed properly, only the developer is capable of restoring data. This is because decryption requires a specific key, which is generated during the encryption. Restoring data without the key is impossible. In most cases, cyber criminals store keys on a remote server, rather than using the infected machine as a host. Dharma (CrySis), Phobos, and other families of high-end ransomware infections are virtually flawless, and thus restoring data encrypted without the developers' involvement is simply impossible. Despite this, there are dozens of ransomware-type infections that are poorly developed and contain a number of flaws (for example, the use of identical encryption/decryption keys for each victim, keys stored locally, etc.). Therefore, always check for available decryption tools for any ransomware that infiltrates your computer.
Finding the correct decryption tool on the internet can be very frustrating. For this reason, we recommend that you use the No More Ransom Project and this is where identifying the ransomware infection is useful. The No More Ransom Project website contains a 'Decryption Tools' section with a search bar. Enter the name of the identified ransomware, and all available decryptors (if there are any) will be listed.
Depending on the situation (quality of ransomware infection, type of encryption algorithm used, etc.), restoring data with certain third-party tools might be possible. Therefore, we advise you to use EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro. This tool supports over a thousand data types (graphics, video, audio, documents, etc.) and it is very intuitive (little knowledge is necessary to recover data).
Step 1: Perform a scan.
Hover your mouse over the partition you wish to scan and select 'Scan'. You can also select a specific folder, or click shortcut icons to scan the Desktop or Recycle Bin:
Wait for EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro to complete the scan. The scanning duration depends on the volume of files (both in quantity and size) that you are scanning (for example, several hundreds gigabytes could take over an hour to scan). Therefore, be patient during the scanning process. We also advise against modifying or deleting existing files, since this might interfere with the scan. If you add additional data (for example, downloading files/content) while scanning, this will prolong the process:
Step 2: Recover data.
Once the process is complete, select the folders/files you wish to restore and simply click 'Recover'. Note that some free space on your storage drive is necessary to restore data. Note also that the trial version of EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Pro is only capable of scanning drives and listing recoverable files - to restore them, you must purchase a license:
Step 3: Save the scan session (optional).
We recommend that you save the scanning session once you have completed recovery, in case you decide to recover additional files later. Simply click the 'Save Scan Session' icon in the upper-right corner of the screen and choose the location for the file to be saved. This will save a lot of time, since you will not need to re-scan the storage drive the next time you wish to restore something. Bear in mind, however, that data removed after the scanning session has finished will not be listed:
Proper file management and creating backups is essential for data security. Therefore, always be very careful and think ahead.
Partition management: We recommend that you store your data in multiple partitions and avoid storing important files within the partition that contains the entire operating system. If you fall into a situation whereby you cannot boot the system and are forced to format the disk on which the operating system is installed (in most cases, this is where malware infections hide), you will lose all data stored within that drive. This is the advantage of having multiple partitions: if you have the entire storage device assigned to a single partition, you will be forced to delete everything, however, creating multiple partitions and allocating the data properly allows you to prevent such problems. You can easily format a single partition without affecting the others - therefore, one will be cleaned and the others will remain untouched, and your data will be saved. Managing partitions is quite simple and you can find all necessary information on Microsoft's documentation web page.
Data backups: The most reliable backup method is to use an external storage device and keep it unplugged. Copy your data to an external hard drive, flash (thumb) drive, SSD, HDD, or any other storage device, unplug it and store it in a dry place away from sun and extreme temperatures. This method is, however, quite inefficient, since data backups and updates need to be made regularly. You can also use a cloud service or remote server. Here, an internet connection is required and there is always the chance of a security breach. Therefore, you should consider using an application to create data backups locally.
We recommend using the EaseUS Todo Backup application. The 'Home' edition of EaseUS Todo Backup is usually more than adequate for regular users, however, the 'Business' edition is more suitable for companies and large computer networks. The EaseUS Todo Backup application provides extensive data protection features. You can easily create backups, and encrypt and compress them for enhanced protection and storage saving purposes. It also allows you to set backup schedules, create bootable devices, and restore the system if a crash occurs. You can easily choose where to store the created backup: locally; uploaded to an external drive; FTP; cloud storage, or elsewhere. In summary, EaseUS Todo Backup is an all-in-one tool, which provides all features required to properly backup your data.
Creating a data backup:
The backup process is virtually identical regardless of the item (file, partition, entire system) you wish to backup. Taking the File Backup feature as an example:
Step 1: Choose which item to backup.
Click on the 'Menu' icon in the upper-left corner of the screen to reveal the menu and select 'File Backup':
Select the files you want to backup. You can also enter a name and description of the backup that will be created:
Step 2: Change the default settings.
The EaseUS Todo Backup application provides a variety of additional options that can be added/modified while creating the backup. For example, you can encrypt data (add a password), select the compression rate (how much the backup should be compressed), performance (how many system resources should be allocated), add an email notification (you receive an email once the process is complete) and so on.
To open the options window, click the 'Backup options' button in the lower-left corner of the screen:
Select the settings you want to change and click 'Save'. You can also reset your changes by clicking 'Reset to initial settings':
Step 3: Select the backup destination.
As mentioned above, EaseUS Todo Backup allows you to choose where backups are saved - locally or externally.
We’ve taken a closer look at how it measures up in our FL Studio for Mac review.FL Studio For Mac has been one the most highly anticipated music production software releases of the year. 4.5 Overall Scoreis finally here after 20 years of waiting. Fl studio for mac. Mac users have had to wait a long time but it's been well worth it as FL Studio for Mac delivers everything that has made it so successful on PC. FL Studio for Mac won't disappoint those that have waited so long for it to arrive on macOS. It's the creative possibilities that make FL Studio so good and even though it's a professional music production suite, the learning curve feels less then other similar software and there are lots of video tutorials to help you get to grips with it quickly.
Click the 'Browse..' button and select the location you want the backup to be saved:
Step 4: Safety measures and process completion.
Depending on the location you have chosen, there are a number of measures you should or should not take. If you are uploading to an internet-connected location (for example, Cloud storage, FTP, etc.), be sure to maintain your internet connection, otherwise you will have to start again. The same applies to external storage devices - do not unplug them until the process is complete.
The progress bar displays estimated time remaining until completion. Large backups (hundreds of gigabytes) can take hours to create (depending on storage device speed, internet connection, etc.). Therefore, the application also allows you to optionally choose what the system should do (shut down, sleep or hibernate) once the process has finished:
The best way to avoid damage from ransomware infections is to maintain regular up-to-date backups.
Data: HCV structure
Reference: The Coding Region of the HCV Genome Contains a Network of Regulatory RNA Structures
Nathan Pirakitikulr, Andrew Kohlway, Brett D. Lindenbach and Anna Marie Pyle
Mol Cell 2016 (62) : 111-120
Data: HOTAIR structure
Reference: HOTAIR forms an intricate and modular secondary structure
Srinivas Somarowthu, Michal Legiewicz, Isabel Chillón Gazquez, Marco Marcia, Fei Liu and Anna Marie Pyle
Mol Cell 2015 (58) : 353-361
Description: Libraries of discrete RNA conformations based on a simplified pseudo-torsional notation of the RNA backbone.
Reference:Humphris E and Pyle AM. Discrete RNA Libraries from Pseudo-Torsional Space.J Mol Biol,(2012).
Download: RNA Libraries
Author: Kevin Keating
Description: RCrane allows for semi-automated building of RNA structure within Coot.
Current version: 1.1 (released September 26, 2012) View changelog
References: Keating KS and Pyle AM. Semiautomated model building for RNA crystallography using a directed rotameric approach. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 107 (2010) 8177-8182.
Keating KS and Pyle AM. RCrane: Semi-automated RNA model building. Acta Cryst D68: 958-995 (2012).
Downloading instructions: RCrane is included in Coot. Once Coot is launched, go to Extensions -> RCrane launch. RCrane will then be accessible through the newly-created RCrane menu. Coot downloads are available for Linux, Windows, and Mac. The source code for RCrane is available on GitHub.
Note: RCrane and Coot are also available through SBGrid.
Author: Leven Wadley
Description: AMIGOS II allows the user to perform interactive comparisons between RNA structures and to conduct database searches for specific RNA structures or substructures.
Downloading instructions: Please contact us if you would like to use AMIGOS II . You will be required to sign a license agreement, and then we will provide the software and installation instructions by email. It is free for academic use but carries a charge for industrial use.
Note: AMIGOS II is also available through SBGrid.
Description: Qnifft utilizes the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann (NLPB) equation to calculate the electrostatic potentials of nucleic acids.
Kim Sharp has developed an updated version of Qnifft that can be compiled for both Linux and SGI platforms. This program is available from his website.
Author: Phillip S. Pang
Description: SHEVEK predicts long-range tertiary interactions within RNAs, between RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions from sequence alignments.
Reference: “Prediction of Functional Tertiary Interactions and Intermolecular Interfaces From Primary Sequence Data”, PS Pang, E Jankowsky, LM Wadley and AM Pyle, J of Experimental Zoology (Mol Dev Evol) (2005), 000, 1-14.
Downloading instructions: Please contact us if you would like to use SHEVEK.