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Australia’s free online research portal. Trove is a collaboration between the National Library of Australia and hundreds of Partner organisations around Australia. Leadership and performance beyond expectations by Bass, Bernard M., unknown edition. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations John M. Longshore Captain, United States Marine Corps, Naval Aviation Logistic Center, Patuxent River, MD, and doctoral candidate, NOVA University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press. It is one of the best leadership books I ever read so far. “Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations” by Bernard M. Bass, published by The Free Press in 1985. Download and Read Free Online LEADERSHIP AND PERFORMANCE BEYOND EXPECTATIONS Bernard M. Bass From reader reviews: Miles Towles: Nowadays reading books are more than want or need but also get a life style.

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Leadership

Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation -- A 35-Year Odyssey

'.. The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validi ..'
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The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory’s limitations.

Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis

'.. This study was a meta-analysis of the relationship between personality and ratings of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. Using the 5-factor model of personality as an organizing framework, the authors accumulated 384 correlations from 26 independent studies. Personality traits ..'
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This study was a meta-analysis of the relationship between personality and ratings of transformational and transactional leadership behaviors. Using the 5-factor model of personality as an organizing framework, the authors accumulated 384 correlations from 26 independent studies. Personality traits were related to 3 dimensions of transformational leadership—idealized influence–inspirational motiva-tion (charisma), intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration—and 3 dimensions of trans-actional leadership—contingent reward, management by exception–active, and passive leadership. Extraversion was the strongest and most consistent correlate of transformational leadership. Although results provided some support for the dispositional basis of transformational leadership—especially with respect to the charisma dimension—generally, weak associations suggested the importance of future research to focus on both narrower personality traits and nondispositional determinants of transforma-tional and transactional leadership. A recent PsycINFO search revealed that 1,738 of the 15,000 articles (12%) published since 1990 on the topic of leadership included the keywords personality and leadership. Clearly, schol-ars have a strong and continuing interest in the dispositional bases
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The social scientific study of leadership: quo vadis?

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Leadership development: A review in context’,

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Does the transactional–transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries

'.. There is universality in the transactional-transforma-tional eadership aradigm. That is, the same conception of phenomena nd relationships can be observed in a wide range of organizations and cultures. Exceptions can be understood as a consequence of unusual attributes of the organizations or cultur ..'
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There is universality in the transactional-transforma-tional eadership aradigm. That is, the same conception of phenomena nd relationships can be observed in a wide range of organizations and cultures. Exceptions can be understood as a consequence of unusual attributes of the organizations or cultures. Three corollaries are discussed. Supportive evidence has been gathered in studies conducted in organizations in business, educa-tion, the military, the government, and the independent sector. Likewise, supportive vidence has been accumu-lated from all but 1 continent to document the applicabil-ity of the paradigm. i lBv idence supporting the transactional-transforma-r tional leadership aradigm has been gathered from all continents except Antarctica--even offshore in
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Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership

'.. How do leadership ratings collected from units operating under stable conditions predict subsequent performance of those units operating under high stress and uncertainty? To examine this question, the authors calculated the predictive relationships for the transformational and transactional leaders ..'
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How do leadership ratings collected from units operating under stable conditions predict subsequent performance of those units operating under high stress and uncertainty? To examine this question, the authors calculated the predictive relationships for the transformational and transactional leadership of 72 light infantry rifle platoon leaders for ratings of unit potency, cohesion, and performance for U.S. Army platoons participating in combat simulation exercises. Both transformational and transactional contingent reward leadership ratings of platoon leaders and sergeants positively predicted unit performance. The relationship of platoon leadership to performance was partially mediated through the unit’s level of potency and cohesion. Implications, limitations, and future directions for leadership research are discussed. The pace of change confronting organizations today has resulted in calls for more adaptive, flexible leadership. Adaptive leaders work more effectively in rapidly changing environments by help-ing to make sense of the challenges confronted by both leaders and followers and then appropriately responding to those challenges. Adaptive leaders work with their followers to generate creative solutions to complex problems, while also developing them to handle a broader range of leadership responsibilities (Bennis, 2001). Bass (1985) labeled the type of adaptive leadership described above transformational. The literature accumulated on testing transformational leadership theory has provided general support for the hypothesized relationships between transformational lead-ership, transactional leadership, and performance (Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1998). For example, ratings of transformational leadership were positively correlated with supervisory evaluations of mana-gerial performance (Hater & Bass, 1988; Waldman, Bass, & Ein-stein, 1987), recommendations for promotion (Waldman, Bass, &
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A social identity theory of leadership.

'.. A social identity theory of leadership is described that views leadership as a group process generated by social categorization and prototype-based depersonalization processes associated with social identity. Group identification, as self-categorization, constructs an intragroup prototypicality gra ..'
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A social identity theory of leadership is described that views leadership as a group process generated by social categorization and prototype-based depersonalization processes associated with social identity. Group identification, as self-categorization, constructs an intragroup prototypicality gradient that invests the most prototypical member with the appearance of having influence; the appearance arises because members cognitively and behaviorally conform to the prototype. The appearance of influence becomes a reality through depersonalized social attraction processes that makefollowers agree and comply with the leader's ideas and suggestions. Consensual social attraction also imbues the leader with apparent status and creates a status-based structural differentiation within the group into leader(s) and followers, which has characteristics ofunequal status intergroup relations. In addition, afundamental attribution process constructs a charismatic leadership personality for the leader, which further empowers the leader and sharpens the leader-follower status differential. Empirical supportfor the theory is reviewed and a range of implications discussed, including intergroup dimensions, uncertainty reduction and extremism, power, and pitfalls ofprototype-based leadership. Over the past 25 years social psychology has placed relatively little emphasis on the study of leadership. This is probably associated with the well-documented decline during the 1960s and 1970s of interest in small group research, the associated ascendency of social cognition, the European emphasis on large scale intergroup relations, and the "outsourcing" of small group and leadership research to organizational and management departments (for historical overviews, see
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Understanding cultures and implicit leadership theories across the globe: an introduction to project GLOBE

'.. GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) is a research program focusing on culture and leadership in 61 nations. National cultures are examined in terms of nine dimensions: performance orientation, future orientation, assertiveness, power distance, humane orientation, inst ..'
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GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) is a research program focusing on culture and leadership in 61 nations. National cultures are examined in terms of nine dimensions: performance orientation, future orientation, assertiveness, power distance, humane orientation, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and gender egalitarianism. In a survey of thousands of middle managers in food processing, finance, and telecommunications industries in these countries, GLOBE compares their cultures and attributes of effective leadership. Six global leadership attributes are identified and discussed.

Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams

'.. SUMMARY—Teams of people working together for a common purpose have been a centerpiece of human social organization ever since our ancient ancestors first banded together to hunt game, raise families, and defend their communities. Human history is largely a story of people working together in groups ..'
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SUMMARY—Teams of people working together for a common purpose have been a centerpiece of human social organization ever since our ancient ancestors first banded together to hunt game, raise families, and defend their communities. Human history is largely a story of people working together in groups to explore, achieve, and conquer. Yet, the modern concept of work in large organizations that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is largely a tale of work as a collection of individual jobs. A variety of global forces unfolding over the last two decades, however, has pushed organizations worldwide to restructure work around teams, to enable more rapid, flexible, and adaptive responses to the unexpected. This shift in the structure of work has made team effectiveness a salient organizational concern. Teams touch our lives everyday and their effectiveness is important to well-being across a wide range of societal functions. There is over 50 years of psychological research—literally thousands of studies—focused on understanding and influencing the processes that underlie team effectiveness. Our goal in this monograph is to sift through this voluminous literature to identify what we know, what we think we know, and what we need to know to improve the effectiveness of work groups and teams. We begin by defining team effectiveness and establishing the conceptual underpinnings of our approach to understanding it. We then turn to our review, which concentrates primarily on topics that have well-developed theoretical and empirical foundations, to ensure that our conclusions and recommendations are on firm footing. Our review begins by focusing on cognitive, motivational/affective, and behavioral team processes—processes that enable team members to combine their resources to resolve task demands and, in so doing, be effective. We then turn our attention to identifying interventions, or ‘‘levers,’ ’ that can shape or align team processes and thereby provide tools

Self-concordance at work: Toward understanding the motivational effects of transformational leaders.

'.. We extend existing theories by linking transformational leadership to 'self-concordance' at work. In two studies using diverse samples and methods, leader behaviors were associated with follower tendencies to set self-concordant goals. In general, followers of transformational leaders vie ..'
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We extend existing theories by linking transformational leadership to "self-concordance" at work. In two studies using diverse samples and methods, leader behaviors were associated with follower tendencies to set self-concordant goals. In general, followers of transformational leaders viewed their work as more important and as more self-congruent. The effects of self-concordant work goals on job attitudes and performance were generally positive; however, the pattern of relationships differed in the field study and the experimental study. Over the past 20 years, considerable research effort has been invested in the study of transformational, charismatic, visionary, or inspiring leaders. In contrast to rational or "transactional" approaches to leadership, transformational and charismatic theories have been framed to recognize the affective and emotional needs and responses of followers. Whereas each of the extant theories In light of this impressive support, it is surprising that so little is known about the processes by which transformational or charismatic leaders have their effects on followers. According to Bass, "Much more explanation is needed about the inner workings of transformational leadership " (1999: 24). Noting that current rational and economic theories of motivation cannot explain the transformational leadership process, Shamir, House, and Arthur (1993) offered a self-concept-based theory. Although their theory is one of the best articulated theories regarding the motivational effects of charismatic leaders, it received only limited support in a recent empirical test The present investigation was designed to extend the self-concept-based theory by linking some elements of the theory with the self-concordance model, a motivational theory that links internal self-regulation, goal-directed effort, and goal attainment. Our purpose was to gain a better understanding of the reasons why followers of transformational leaders exhibit increased motivation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance. We did this by testing one of the most fundamental notions underlying transformational leadership theory and the self-concept-based theory-that followers of transformational leaders find their work more meaningful and thus, are more self-engaged. In two studies, we used the selfconcordance model to demonstrate how transforThis manuscript is based on the dissertation of the first author, which was completed under the supervision of the second. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Form 5X (copyright 1995 by Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio), was used with the permission of Mind Garden, 1690 Woodside Road, Suite 202, Redwood City, CA 94061. All rights reserved. The Role-Based Performance Scale (RBPS) was used with the permission of Theresa Welbourne, University of Michigan Business School, 701 Tappan Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1234. 2003, Vol. 46, No. 5, 554-571. 554 mational leaders affect follower engagement with their work. Academy of Management Journal THEORY AND HYPOTHESES Transformational Leadership One of the vexing issues in research on charismatic and transformational leadership is the extent to which the various theories overlap, both conceptually and operationally. These differing approaches lend depth and breadth to academic and practitioner knowledge of this genre of leadership. However, it is difficult to specify the motivational mechanisms linking leaders and followers without very clear conceptual definitions, including the specification of leader behaviors. Recent theories of charisma in organizations Self-Concept-Based Theory and the SelfConcordance Model With self-concept-based theory, Shamir and his coauthors (1993) advanced transformational leadership research by outlining the motivational processes linking leaders and their followers. In selfconcept-based theory, there are three key ways in which transformational leaders motivate followers: by increasing follower self-efficacy, by facilitating followers' social identification with their group, and by linking work values to follower valuesthus increasing the extent to which followers view their work as self-expressive. First, by providing a sense of direction (vision) and expressing high expectations and confidence in followers' ability to meet these expectations Second, transformational leaders increase followers' social identification with their group. Social identification is the process by which individuals identify with a group, feel pride in belonging, and see membership in the group as an important aspect of their identities or self-concepts. This aspect of the self-concept-based theory also received mixed support in the The third way that transformational leaders influence followers is through value internalization and "self-engagement" with work. When transformational leaders describe work in ideological terms, and focus on higher-order values (such as high achievement as a value in and of itself An assumption underlying self-concept-based theory is that employees who view their work as congruent with their own motives, goals, and/or values (or as self-congruent) will be more motivated and more satisfied and will perform better. Indeed, the self-concordance model-a psychological theory of motivation and self-regulation-suggests that this is true. Thus, we sought to gain a better understanding of the effects of transforma-2003 555 Bono and Judge tional or charismatic leaders by considering selfconcordance as a motivational mechanism. Self-concordance refers to the extent to which activities such as job-related tasks or goals express individuals' authentic interests and values (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). The self-concordance model is a theory of self-regulation, that is based in selfdetermination theory In a recent series of studies, Sheldon and colleagues (e.g., Sheldon & Elliot, 1998 found that autonomous (versus controlled) motivation was associated with goal-directed effort, goal attainment, and satisfaction with goal achievement. This relationship exists because autonomously motivated goals fit with a person's values and beliefs and are consistent with personal convictions. They represent core values and enduring interests of the self. In contrast, controlled motivation represents goals adopted in response to environmental contingencies, such as financial rewards, or those resulting from internal processes, such as guilt or shame. Whether a goal is perceived to be autonomous or controlled is not necessarily a function of the goal's content. Rather, it is the assessments individuals make about their reasons for goal pursuit that are important. On the basis of these studies, Sheldon and Elliot (1999) posited a self-concordance model, arguing that goals that are self-concordant (that is, consistent with one's values and interests) lead to goal attainment and well-being. Like Ryan and Connell (1989), Sheldon and Elliot treated self-concordance as a continuum, forming a composite of the two controlled (external and introjected) and two autonomously motivated (identified and intrinsic) reasons for acting. Sheldon and colleagues' studies provide impressive evidence that self-concordant goals are associated with positive outcomes (such as goal attainment and well-being). Furthermore, their findings are consistent with those of O'Reilly and Chatman (1986), who found that individuals with an internalized (versus a compliant) commitment to their organizations exhibited more extrarole behaviors, were less likely to leave, and contributed more to fund raising. Given our adoption of a "new" concept-selfconcordance-we believe it is important to provide a brief discussion of the relationships between this construct and other related organizational variables, such as psychological empowerment, and to justify our reasons for linking the self-concordance model with self-concept-based theory. With respect to the first issue, there is conceptual overlap between psychological empowerment One might ask what the concept of self-concordance adds to earlier work on intrinsic motivation and self-determination. Is self-concordance simply "old wine in a new bottle"? Although it is clearly derived from thinking on self-determination, the self-concordance concept represents an advance in 556 October Academy of Management Journal several ways. Perhaps most importantly, selfconcordance is explicitly a goal-oriented or conative concept (Sheldon & Elliot, 1998). Earlier theorizing on intrinsic motivation did not place much emphasis on goal-directed behavior. In contrast, goals, and the associated reasons for their pursuit, are the defining feature of self-concordance. More generally, whereas self-determination theory was developed to account for the effects of contextual forces on intrinsic motivation (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), the self-concordance model focuses on individuals' proactive and self-generated plans. This focus fits well with the literature on charismatic/transformational leadership, which was explicitly developed as an alternative to leadership models that were predicated on a distinction between prescribed behavior on the job and performance beyond expectations There is surprising congruency between the selfconcordance model and Shamir and colleagues' (1993) self-concept-based theory. Shamir et al. noted that charismatic leaders link work behavior to followers' self-concepts, values, and identities, thereby increasing the value of their work activities and "harnessing the motivational forces of selfexpression, self-esteem, and self-worth" (1993: 585). Similarly, Sheldon and Elliott (1998) linked autonomous goals to individuals' core values, which are a key part of the self. Moreover, the behaviors of transformational leaders, which lead to follower self-engagement, appear to have a great deal in common with one of the primary environmental (social) determinants of self-concordance. Specifically, when individuals in authority (such as leaders) provide a meaningful rationale for the work to be done, self-concordance is increased With respect to our link between the self-concordance model and self-concept-based theory, we believe that the self-concordance model is an ideal means to address the motivational hypotheses underlying self-concept-based theory-that transformational or charismatic leaders influence follower self-engagement. The self-concordance model allows us to get directly at motives without confounding them with self-efficacy or job autonomy, though both of these may influence motives. For example, although Shamir and his colleagues (1998) provided many new insights into the links between leaders and followers, in their study heightened motivation was linked with self-sacrifice. The self-concordance model suggests that when individuals internalize work values-as suggested by the self-concept based theory-they do not perceive themselves to be sacrificing self-interests for the greater good. Rather, if followers internalize leader and group goals, subsequent actions are motivated by personally held values. Indeed, considerable evidence from the self-concordance model demonstrates motivational differences in goals pursued for an "other," such as a transformational leader, and goals pursued because they represent personally held values. Because self-concept engagement is at the heart of self-concept-based theory, testing the self-concordance model provides an important, direct test of self-concept-based theory. In summary, we suggest that when transformational leaders present work in terms of ideology and values endorsed by most followers (higherorder values STUDY 1: METHODS Participants and Procedures Participants were 247 individuals (leaders) holding supervisory or managerial positions within a participating organization and 954 of the individuals who reported directly to them. For this study, a leader was defined by formal position. Individuals who were supervised by these leaders are referred to as followers. We recruited nine organizations (seven business, one governmental, and one nonprofit), in industries ranging from advertising to aerospace, including both service and manufacturing organizations. Each organization identified a group of managers for participation in the study (such as all managers in the organization, or all managers in a particular geographic location or di-2003 557 Bono and Judge vision). The leaders we studied held positions ranging from upper-level manager to entry-level supervisor, such as a team leader. They had 2-248 followers; the mode was 4 followers per leader. On average, leaders had held their current jobs for 5.5 years and worked in their current organizations 9.7 years. Twenty percent of the leaders held graduate degrees, 42 percent had bachelor's degrees, 63 percent were men, and their average age was 43 years. Of 324 leaders invited to participate, 247 (76%) completed surveys. For each leader, up to 6 followers were also invited to participate (selection criteria are discussed below), resulting in a total of 1,368 followers who were potential participants. Of these, 954 followers (70%) completed our initial (time 1) surveys. Follow-up (time 2) surveys were completed by 98 percent (243) of the leaders and by 86 percent of the followers (775 of 904; 50 followers did not provide complete data at time 1 and thus did not receive time 2 surveys). The overall response rates were thus 70 percent, for the leaders, and 57 percent, for the followers. Matched data (leader and follower at times 1 and 2) were obtained for 173 leaders and 680 of their followers. Data were collected over the Internet. At time 1, leaders identified their followers from a company list. Six followers were randomly selected (by an algorithm built into the Web site) for inclusion in the study. If a leader had fewer than 6 followers, all were included. An e-mail was sent to followers asking them to participate in the study by completing a leadership survey (for the target leader) and a measure of goal self-concordance. Approximately 60 days later (time 2), leaders completed job performance surveys for each of the randomly selected followers, and followers completed job attitude surveys. Also at time 2, a significant other (a close friend or family member) completed a job satisfaction survey for 510 (56%) of the followers. Paper surveys were distributed to followers, who passed them along to a significant other. Completed surveys were returned to the authors, and all individual responses were confidential, although summary reports were provided to leaders and organization executives. Measures Leadership. Transformational leadership behaviors were measured with the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-Form 5X), the most frequently used measure of transformational leadership. Although early versions of this measure were criticized as assessing follower attributions rather than leader behaviors, more recent versions focus on leader behaviors. Considerable evidence of the validity and reliability of the MLQ has been compiled. However, some controversy over its dimensionality remains. In most studies, including a recent large-scale study Follower satisfaction with leader. Follower satisfaction with the leader was measured with the three-item Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) satisfaction with supervision scale Follower job satisfaction. We measured job satisfaction using five items from the Brayfield Rothe scale Follower organizational commitment. Organizational commitment was measured with the eight- 558 October Academy of Management Journal item affective commitment scale Follower job performance. We used a 15-item measure of job performance including both task performance and initiative aspects of performance, including innovation, personal initiative, and selfdirection. Leaders provided reports of job performance for each of their selected followers. Selfdirection items (4) were adapted from a scale developed by Self-concordance. A goal-based measure of selfconcordance was used, a practice that was consistent with research by Sheldon and colleagues (see Sheldon & Elliot, 1998). Followers were asked to identify six of their short-term, job-related goals. Because of constraints imposed by participating organizations, and because it fit within the time frame of other self-concordance research, we defined a short-term goal as one that could be accomplished in 60 days. After participants identified goals, we asked for their reasons for pursuing each goal. An individual's first goal appeared on the computer screen followed by four questions representing a continuum of self-concordant reasons for goal pursuit. The questions were "You choose this goal because somebody else wants you to or because the situation demands it" and "You pursue this goal because you would feel anxious, guilty, or ashamed if you didn't" (external and introjected items represent controlled motivation); "You pursue this goal because you really believe it's an important goal to have" and "You pursue this goal because of the fun and enjoyment it provides you" (identified and intrinsic items represent autonomous motivation). Participants answered all four questions for each of their six goals using a ninepoint scale (1 ϭ "not at all for this reason," to 9, "completely for this reason"). As our Web-based survey did not allow skipping items, six goals were obtained for all participants. STUDY 1: ANALYSES AND RESULTS Levels of Analysis Before examining the statistical properties of our data, we followed recommendations made by Measurement Issues We used structural equation modeling (LISREL 8.3) to test our hypotheses. Prior to conducting our analyses, we examined several aspects of our data. We examined the relationship between leaders' demographic characteristics-age, sex, and organizational tenure-and transformational leadership. No associations were found. We also examined the measurement properties of some of our variables. As is typically found As noted earlier, it was our intention to obtain a comprehensive measure of overall job performance. Because we drew items from a number of performance scales, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 15 items. Results indicated that a single factor with an eigenvalue greater than 1.00 explained 84 percent of the variance in the items. Results, which are shown in Because we conceptualized transformational leadership at the group level, we averaged the transformational leadership scores of all followers for each leader (the average was four followers per leader). This procedure was consistent with past research We examined the data for consistency in goal self-concordance across the six goals for each follower. Results indicated consistency in responses across goals, as indicated by coefficients alpha of .82 and .83, respectively, for controlled and autonomous motivation. In some studies Although there are reasons to exercise caution in the use of difference scores 560 October Academy of Management Journal our undertaking analyses without reliance on difference scores, make their use here less of an issue than is often the case. Prior to aggregating the data across organizations, we conducted a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) looking for mean-level differences between the organizations. Results revealed small, albeit significant, mean-level differences for some variables (such as transformational leadership and self-concordance), but not others (such as job satisfaction). However, organizations in which mean levels of transformational leadership were high were not the same organizations in which levels of self-concordance were high. We also conducted five meta-analyses, examining associations among transformational leadership, self-concordance, job attitudes, and job performance. Our goal was to determine whether sampling error could explain differences between organizations. Results indicated that sampling error accounted for most of the differences in relationships between companies: more than 70 percent of the variance in correlations across organizations was a consequence of sampling error. Thus, we deemed it appropriate to aggregate our data across companies. Finally, to prevent interpretational problems inherent in simultaneous estimation of measurement and structural models, we tested a measurement model, loading each of the latent and observed variables on the intended construct. This model demonstrated a good fit for the data ( 2 ϭ 25.99, df ϭ 14, p ϭ .02, CFI ϭ 1.00, IFI ϭ 1.00, SRMR ϭ .01, RMSEA ϭ .04). In cases in which we used a single observed variable to measure a latent construct (job attitudes), we corrected for measurement error by setting an error variance equal to ( 2 ). Results No association was found between self-concordance and job performance. Positive associations were found between self-concordance and job satisfaction (r ϭ .18 and r ϭ .12 for self-and significant-other reports), organizational commitment (r ϭ .12), and satisfaction with the leader (r ϭ .08). Further examination of the data reveals that these associations are due to the autonomous motivation-job attitudes association, as there is no association between controlled motivation and job attitudes. Next we estimated a structural model testing our mediation hypothesis (Hypothesis 2) for job attitudes. Results of this model, which are displayed in FIGURE 1 Relationships among Transformational Leadership, Goal Self-Concordance, and Job Attitudes a a n ϭ 716. Job attitudes were allowed to correlate (job satisfaction-satisfaction with supervision, r ϭ .37; job satisfaction-organizational commitment, r ϭ .63; satisfaction with supervision-organizational commitment, r ϭ .38). Values in parentheses represent the relationship between leadership and job attitudes with only the autonomous motivation dimension of goal self-concordance as a mediator.
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Bass, Bernard M. Leadership and performance beyond expectations / Bernard M. Bass Free Press ; Collier Macmillan New York : London 1985

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TradingView Chart Data Extractor Video Tutorial. How-to screen recording: The resulting file from the tutorial above: Ensure that you zoom/pan such that the oldest date you desire is visible on TradingView before publishing the chart. Web Scraping Using Python What is Data Extraction? Data extraction is a process that involves retrieval of data from different website sources. Firms extract data in order to analyze it, migrate the data to a data repository (data warehouse) or use it in their businesses. Tool for finding ownerless Roblox groups. Contribute to h0nde/roblox-group-scraper development by creating an account on GitHub. AutoScraper: A Smart, Automatic, Fast and Lightweight Web Scraper for Python. This project is made for automatic web scraping to make scraping easy. It gets a url or the html content of a web page and a list of sample data which we want to scrape from that page. This data can be text, url or any html tag value of that page. It learns the scraping rules and returns the similar elements. The most popular web scraping extension. Start scraping in minutes. Automate your tasks with our Cloud Scraper. No software to download, no coding needed. Github web scraper python.

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Bass, Bernard M. Leadership and performance beyond expectations / Bernard M. Bass Free Press ; Collier Macmillan New York : London 1985

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Bass, Bernard M. 1985, Leadership and performance beyond expectations / Bernard M. Bass Free Press ; Collier Macmillan New York : London

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